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B.A.F. (Bunker Adjustement Factor)

B.A.F. (Bunker Adjustement Factor) a.k.a. B.S. (Bunker Surcharge) a.k.a. I.F.P. (Interin Fuel Partecipation): ancillary charge to the sea rate tied up to the crude oil price fluctuation.

Bill of lading (abbr. B/L)

It is a document issued by the carrier (shipping line) valid as:

1. A Contract of transportation when duly signed by the parties.

2. A proof that goods have been delivered from the shipper to the shipping line in good order and conditions (in case of “on board” bill of lading it is also a proof of the shipment).

3. A document of transfer, endorsable, affecting the ownership of the goods there in described (“document of title“). This validity is excluded, instead, in case of NOT Original bill of lading, such as the case of Express bill of lading or Sea Way bill of lading which are documents that gives no right at all to the goods therein described.

C.A.F. (Currency Adjustement Factor)

C.A.F. (Currency Adjustement Factor) : ancillary charge to the sea rate depending on the USD rate of exchange fluctuation.

Container payload

There are THREE different limitations to the container paylod. A phisical limitation related to the container dimensions. A structural limitation (clearly shown on the external door side of each container) which cannot be exceeded under the risk of container collapsing. And a legal limitation (‘road weight limitations’) assessed by any local Authority  to any container carried by truck on its territory. This limitation can vary from a country to another and if, exceeded, can be punished with heavy fines, cargo seizing and even criminal actions.

Download the attachment CONTAINER LOADING – PAYLOAD  pdf

Containers : a proper pre-loading check

An accurate pre-loading container check is the best action to prevent any possible damage occurring to the cargo during the transportation. In the attachment below you will find some golden rules to carry out an effective pre-loading container check.

Download the attachment CONTAINERS PRELOADING CHECK  pdf


Considering their characters, sea transportations schedules are often subject to dates changes, due to unexpected events (bad weather conditions, port congestions, strikes, acts of God). This gives rise to the following wording, commonly used when reference is made to a vessel’s schedule :

  • E.T.D.: ‘estimated time of departure’.
  • E.T.S.: ‘estimated time of sailing’.
  • E.T.A.: ‘estimated time of arrival’.
  • E.T.C.: ‘estimated time of completions’ (referred to unloading/loading operatoins)


Vessel of small/medium dimensions, connecting the hub ports (where the mother vessels call at) and the regional ports where cargo is discharged (import) or loaded (export). It is basic for the transhipment transportation services.

Full Container Loaded

“Full container Loaded” Means a container fully loaded by a single shipper or exporter, and bound for a single consignee or importer. The stuffing of the container (and the full description of cargo shown on the bill of lading) are under the sole responsibility of the shipper. Therefore, provided the container arrives at destination duly sealed as delivered to the shipping line, nobody but the shipper can beh held responsible for any loss.

High Cube Container

Container the height of which exceeds the standard height of  1 Foot (= 33 cms ). Considering the increased payload compared to standard containers, it is more and more utilized in sea transportation.


New regulation enforced by FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization – part of the United Nations) to prevent the diffusion of wooden pests. It provides that any wooden packaging material must be treaten to assure it is pest free. It is in force in all major countries

Download the attachment ISPM15  pdf

Less than Container loaded

“Less than Container Loaded” means that a container is loaded by more shippers/exporters and bound for one or more consignees/importers.


It is an additional freight charge  (usually 5% on sea freight) common in sea transportation, in countries such as Turkey. Originarily it was a commission  that ship’s owner used to pay to the Master and his crew as a benefit .